## Updating Circuit Theory: Relating Photons to Charges

Series

By Ian Darney

A definitive relationship is established between photons and charges. Charges flow axially along the send conductor and radially towards the surface. At the surface, they are stopped by atomic forces. Photons are emitted. The rate of change of the number of departing photons is proportional to the number of charges arriving at the surface. The energy lost to the conductor is measured by the voltage developed along the inductance. The energy stored in the conductor is measured by the number of charges held at the surface. This assessment was obtained by successive refinements of the transmission line model of the differential-mode current waveform in a twin-conductor cable which is open-circuit at the far end.

Introduction

A test is described where a step voltage is applied to the near end of a twin conductor cable which is open-circuit at the far end and a photographic record is taken of the differential-mode current. Then a circuit model is created which replicates the recorded waveform. Analysis of the model provides an insight into the mechanisms involved.

Details are provided of the setup, the test method, and the test result; a waveform with multiple discontinuities. Then a circuit model is created to replicate that waveform. Details are provided of the reasoning used to create that model. A Mathcad worksheet is developed to simulate the recorded waveform. Details are provided of the values assigned to the constants and all the variables are defined. The purpose of each function (subroutine) is described and a block diagram provided of the computation process.

The end result is a waveform which correlates quite closely with that created by the test equipment. Assessment of the results provides a definitive relationship between the movement of charges along the conductor and the propagation of photons to and fro between the conductors.

Since the terminals at the far end are open-circuit, the eventual state is a constant voltage between the conductors due to charges trapped on the surfaces. But this is sustained by photons which continue to propagate to and fro between the conductors.

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